CBD Oil: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, Precautions

Cannabidiol undergoes biotransformation consisting of two phases (Figure 3). The first occurs mainly in the liver, where CBD undergoes transformations involving isoenzymes of cytochrome P450 (CYP). In a study with human recombinant CYP it has been shown that CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, https://ecosoberhouse.com/ CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 can metabolize CBD, of which CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 play a dominant role in liver microsomes [68]. About 40 different phase I metabolites have been identified in humans and the main ones are 7-carboxy-cannabidiol (7-COOH-CBD) derivatives.

  • Stomach upset or other gastrointestinal problems are another common side effect of CBD and CBD-derived products.
  • “It’s important to start with a low dose until you know how your body will react to CBD,” Lindsay Slowiczek, PharmD, explains.
  • However, in another study, CBD given chronically decreased oxidative stress markers in rats with hypertension, but exhibited prooxidative effects in normotensive control animals, especially in Wistar–Kyoto rats (Table 2) [96].
  • Oils and isolates may be added to food or beverages or taken sublingually (under the tongue) and then swallowed.
  • We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.

CBD can also interact with other medications you’re taking, such as blood thinners. CDC released a Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory in 2021 to inform consumers that CBD can be synthetically converted into Delta-8 THC, which is psychoactive and not well understood. This alert warns consumers about the potential for adverse events due to insufficient labeling of products containing THC and CBD. This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.

Medical Professionals

Until more research is done on CBD oil, it’s important to remember that it may not live up to the hype and could even be dangerous. CBD products have not shown strong evidence of benefit for most of the advertised conditions. Which product you choose primarily depends on your preference and what you hope to get in terms of effects. How fast your body absorbs the oil varies based on how it’s administered. For example, CBD starts to act within five minutes when it’s vaped vs. up to an hour when taken by mouth.

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In isolated hearts, CBD may decrease [108] or slightly increase [110] heart rate and may also have a proarrhythmic effect [108]. An increase in heart rate was also demonstrated in some human and animal studies (Table 2) [52,99,102]. Additionally, in the meta-analysis by Sultan et al. [24], the rat subgroup showed an increase in HR after CBD administration. However, in most cases, CBD does not affect HR in vivo, which indicates (similarly to blood vessels) that peripheral effects might be masked by central influences. It is worth noting that CBD is not only a substrate for CYP isoenzymes, but may also affect their activity.

Takeaways: What Does CBD Feel Like?

In another study, oral CBD (200, 400 and 800 mg) does not alter the subjective, reinforcing and cardiovascular effects of smoked cannabis (1/2 of cigarette containing ~800 mg of cannabis; 5.3–5.8% THC) [93]. CBD (1 mg/kg) and THC (0.5 mg/kg) mixture (p.o.) did not prevent tachycardia (in contrast to anxiety and other marijuana-like effects) induced by is cannabidiol addictive THC given alone (0.5 mg/kg; p.o.) in humans [77]. On the other hand, CBD at equimolar consternations diminished THC-induced increase of HR, and decrease of pulse pressure and coronary blood flow in isolated rat hearts [110]. The influence of CBD on the function of blood vessels was studied in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF)—type 2 diabetes model.

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